Saturday, August 31, 2019
Technology is one form of human assets that has capacitated human civilization to develop by leaps and bounds since ages. For me, technology has made my life trouble-free and convenient. Due to technology I have to put little effort and I get greater inputs and results. Furthermore, with passage of time, I have established emotional attachment with some manifestation of technology, for example my automobile. So technology has not only facilitated my life but it has elevated my living standards. This paper will explore how technology helped my life and entertained me in one way or the other. It has enabled me to access more information worldwide and provided with various medium of enjoying my life. This paper will further look at how technology has contributed toward my self-development and how it helped me to socialize me in a proper way. Internet and socialization & accessibility My relationship to technology involves to its two basic functions. Accessibility is the foremost feature of technology that I use and have used frequently to solve my daily problems. I can access a wealth of information using variety of technologies e. g. Internet, television, cell phone, radio. But I use internet quite frequently to access information and spend my leisure time. Socialization is another aspect of internet technology that I use the most. With the emergence of internet technology, online friendship has thrived by leaps and bounds. Over the last decade more and more people are getting in touch via computer and Internet access. This phenomenon is known as cyber socialization. Internet is most convenient and easily accessible way to get in touch with others and to create relationships. My first memory to use this feature of internet goes back to 2001 when I used the chat rooms for the first time. I joined the chat rooms of various communities including my native community, my old class fellows, and communities on some of my favourites topics. I joined one chat on war against terrorism in 2003 and learnt a lot about the views of different groups on this war. It included viewpoints from Muslim countries on jahadists, talibans and American jingoists as well as the American viewpoints and feelings on the issue of 9/11. So I was able to look on both viewpoints instead of single-sided viewpoints as propagated by American media. Later on, I joined Facebook and Orkut in 2006 and created my own communities and chat rooms. This aspect of technology has not only helped me in socialization but also helped me to learn about the opinions of others. It further instilled in me the ability to respect othersÃ¢â¬â¢ viewpoints, beliefs and opinions. This will further make possible for me to understand diversity in human thoughts and to learn from these thoughts and beliefs. Access to this information has permitted me to understand my role in creating a peaceful and peace-loving world. Internet socialization helped me in another way. I was very shy at the threshold of adulthood and was unable to discuss my sexual problems with anyone at home or school as I was only 12 years old. So I took the opportunity and posted my questions and issues about sexuality online and got satisfying answers. Most of the major servers (such as MSN and AOL) have sexuality forums in which individuals can go to discuss issues relating to sexuality. Most of the chat rooms were based on discussions about variety of sexual topics and people engaged in them are from different age groups. So I got my queries answered by experienced persons. So it was internet technology that helped me to get sexual maturity in a proper way and at the right time. So this manifestation of technology has meant a lot to me and I think it is one of the most beneficial contribution of technology toward my life. It has allowed me to understand my biological self and needs. It further enabled me how much one can help other through this medium of technology and I will continue helping other as others have helped me. Internet is a growing positive force in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s educational lives as it provides easy and round-the-clock access to the education through various means. Back in 1999, my parents considered the education as the single most frequent and vital motivation to buy me a computer thus enabling me to use Internet. Although internet capacitates students to learn in a traditional way by attending online classes and tutorials and reading online books material and stuff but it taught me in an unconventional way i. e. to gain knowledge and information by using useful websites and discussion rooms. It also enhanced my general knowledge and created in me a high rationality level and awareness about various contemporary socio-cultural issues. The most important features of education through internet are its all-pervasiveness and all-time availability that enabled me to get education anywhere anytime. I used to search various topics online about current affairs and general knowledge and I used to surf from one web page to other page accumulating a wealth of information. I did not go to library to search pages and pages to locate some information related to some topics of my interests. I needed not to schedule my learning timings as online access was 24 hours round and I was able to get information depending on my mood and my convenience. Later on Wikipedia was introduced and now I am able to enhance my general knowledge by reading articles on various subjects on www. wikipedia. com. I used to read stories since my childhood and purchased story books for this purpose. But in 2002 I found and accessed some stories online. So there was no need to spend extra amount on story books and I used to enjoy these stories online. With the passage of time, I nurtured a taste for literature. I found a lot of literature online but to read more books online, I got paid access to Questia online library in 2005. This use of technology has helped me to et better grades in my academic life and to understand the world and life in general. It is also important as it takes little efforts and time to get more information. Another relationship between and internet technology was established when I was hankering after a job in 2005. Job-hunting is always a laborious task that requires too much effort and paper-work. But internet made this easier for me. Before the development of internet, well-established conventional recruitment methodologies were in common practice where newspapers ads and job fairs were the usual practices and norm of the organization involved in the hiring process. The conventional process of recruitment used to operate in specific geographical boundaries and was characterized by national and international boundaries. Another hallmark of this traditional hiring methodology was that jobs were advertised at a standard time. But with the advent of internet and the development of online recruitment process, these geographical and time restrictions were removed. Online jobs advertisement and information is available to everyone everywhere and anytime. Accessibility of jobs are no problem and one can download a job at 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and it is reachable by any individual from next door to people sitting in other continents. So I used this e-recruitment option to get a job in 2005. Facilitating Life through Technology Technology has facilitated the life to a great extent. It has made my life easier by providing a lot of facilitations. The foremost of technologies that has affected my life is electricity. Since the age of three, I had a dependence on electricity as I used to charge batteries of my toys using electricity. When I grew younger, I learnt that most of the things that I use in life are dependent on electricity. Electricity used to provide me with sufficient heating in extreme colds when everything outside used to freeze. Without it cool breezes in summer were not possible. In my childhood and adolescence, most of the things related to my entertainment were dependant on electricity. TV, DVD player, computers, play-stations, music systems, digital cameras, video cameras, lights, refrigerators etc. were all activated when plugged into an electricity source. My automobile is another manifestation of technology. I learnt to drive auto at the age of 14 and since then, my automobile is one of my best companions. I have a very personalized relationship with it. Whenever I needed to roam around, to meet my friends mile away, to visit a relative, my automobiles was willing to satisfy my wishes. Beside these wants and wishes, there were genuine needs and requirements. For example, in 2005 it happened that I lost some of my medicines somewhere in the house at night, so I needed to visit a chemist late at night to get some medicines. The nearest chemist was about 10 miles away. If there would have been not automobile, it would have taken me 2 hours on foot to reach the chemist in that cold shivering night. This was horrifying. But my automobile was there and I reached to chemist in 10 minutes and got the required medicines. So for me, automobiles and other means of transport are not accessories or luxuries but they are genuine necessities as it have enabled me to save my life. I am interested in the development of more quick and swift transport like jets and bullet trains as it will reduce the wastage of time traveling from one place to another. I have a very deep relationship with my computer. When I first purchased a Pentium computer in 1999, its essential purpose was entertainment i. e. to play games, to watch videos. I also used it to perform it certain other simple tasks like communication using my e-mails using Hotmail and Yahoo and perform simple calculations. With the passage of time my interest grew up. It became an everyday necessity in my life. As mentioned earlier, I used internet and got various educational and social benefits. I used to create my school reports on it using Microsoft Word. In 2003, I helped my mother by creating an inventory of household items on Microsoft Excel. Through everyone in house was able to locate particulars things that were placed at particular places. I further helped my mother to manage budgets and have a record keeping of daily utilities on Excel sheet. In 2004, I bought a Sony Cyber-shot digital camera and stored albums of my friends and family on computers. I shared these with rest of friends by sending through e-mails. This was cost effective as well as convenient. So computer not only facilitated my life but it also helped me to facilitate my family members. Entertaining Life through Technology Beside physical needs, humans have aesthetics needs too. To fulfill aesthetics needs entrainments in necessary. Technology has also revolutionized the field of entertainment. I too enjoy watching TV and going to cinema houses whenever I have time. My first encounter with TV goes back to childhood days when I watched cartoons at the age of 3. Later on I switched over to movie channels and latest shifts were news channels like BBC World and CNN in 2007 that enabled me to keep an eye on the changing world affairs. I also enjoy listening music in MTV and Channel V but I prefer to enjoy a full-fledge multimedia system for music. Going cinemas is another encounter with technology. The big screen with great sound system produces an atmosphere of grandness and movies like Terminator 2 and Jurassic Park provide real entertainment in this atmosphere. At the age of 12, I went to cinemas with my parents for the first time. From that time till now, it becomes a habit of mine to go for movie with my friends occasionally. Sony play-stations and Nintendo game portals are other sources of technological entrainment that I often use. Though my relationship with game is old but I still enjoy playing adults games on Nintendo. Combating in tough real life scenario in games not only entertains one but it also educate one how to coup with the difficulties of life and how to remove hurdles. I recalled several images from games and made comparisons whenever I went through some real life challenges. Conclusion Although I have encircles only three main features of technology that covers various technologies but it must be kept in mind that we use one aspect or manifestation of technology every minute. And with everyday there comes a new technology and another becomes obsolete. So world of technology is dynamic where one needs to adopt the emerging and changing technologies. We also not forget that like every product, technology too has its bad effects. We should look into its positive effects and should work together with developers and scientists to minimize its negative effects.
Friday, August 30, 2019
In the book Divergent, there were five factions. The names were abnegation, amity, dauntless, erudite and candor. Each faction was formed by a group of people who blamed humanÃ¢â¬â¢s nature for destroying the earth. Erudite was formed by those who blamed ignorance for the war that had occurred in the past. Abnegation was formed by those who blamed selflessness for human natures fault. Candor was formed by those who blamed duplicity and deception for human natureÃ¢â¬â¢s faults. Amity was formed by those who blamed war and fighting for human natures faults, and dauntless was formed by those who blamed cowardice for human natures faults. The dauntless protected the city from the inside and outside. They formed Dauntless around the principle of eliminating fear believing bravery will lead to a more perfect society. Every faction had a role in the city the dauntless had 3 main things, characteristics, physical traits and functions that made them different from the others. The dauntless have bizarre characteristics. They were the only faction that made their members choose to be factionless or die if they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to become dauntless. That is one of the reasons that this faction didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any old members, they could be leaders at a very young age. Every member gets a certain amount of points to spend per month. They can spend those points on clothing, tattoos or other things. The dauntless also acknowledge the death of a person as soon as he/she dies. The funeral is more of a celebration because many people drink. They also call suicide a brave thing to do. The physical traits of the dauntless show that they are dauntless because no other faction is like them . The Dauntless always dress in black. The women wear skin-tight pants, tights, tight dresses, and black boots and shoes. The men wear black pants and form-fitting shirts. Dauntless like to tattoo and pierce their bodies. Girls might wear dark eyeliner and makeup. They might also dye their hair unusual colors and shave their heads. |This is the only faction that allows this. The functions of this faction are that they have to protect the city from inside and out from any threat. Their main task is to guard the fence that surrounds the city. It is considered a dangerous job, but it is also a necessary one and it seems likely that this is part of the reason no other faction has a disagreement with Dauntless because they are the only ones capable of doing this task. They also maintain the city gate which is locked from the outside. Despite being the most warlike faction, Dauntless appears to have a neutral relationship with the other factions. While Erudite and Abnegation fight for government control and Candor and Amity fight over peace and deception, Dauntless are seen as the fighters. They prove to be good partners as they are trained in the art of fighting and practicing physical skills. They also like being this way because that way they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to do extra stuff. This is what makes them different from the other factions; this is why they are independent.
Ã¢â¬Å"ARE YOU GONNA EAT THAT HOT DOG?Ã¢â¬ PAUL ASKED JAcob, his eyes locked on the last remnant of the huge meal the werewolves had consumed. Jacob leaned back against my knees and toyed with the hot dog he had spitted on a straightened wire hanger; the flames at the edge of the bonfire licked along its blistered skin. He heaved a sigh and patted his stomach. It was somehow still flat, though I'd lost count of how many hot dogs he'd eaten after his tenth. Not to mention the super-sized bag of chips or the two-liter bottle of root beer. Ã¢â¬Å"I guess,Ã¢â¬ Jake said slowly. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm so full I'm about to puke, but I think I can force it down. I won't enjoy it at all, though.Ã¢â¬ He sighed again sadly. Despite the fact that Paul had eaten at least as much as Jacob, he glowered and his hands balled up into fists. Ã¢â¬Å"Sheesh.Ã¢â¬ Jacob laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"Kidding, Paul. Here.Ã¢â¬ He flipped the homemade skewer across the circle. I expected it to land hot-dog-first in the sand, but Paul caught it neatly on the right end without difficulty. Hanging out with no one but extremely dexterous people all the time was going to give me a complex. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks, man,Ã¢â¬ Paul said, already over his brief fit of temper. The fire crackled, settling lower toward the sand. Sparks blew up in a sudden puff of brilliant orange against the black sky. Funny, I hadn't noticed that the sun had set. For the first time, I wondered how late it had gotten. I'd lost track of time completely. It was easier being with my Quileute friends than I'd expected. While Jacob and I had dropped off my bike at the garage Ã¢â¬â and he had admitted ruefully that the helmet was a good idea that he should have thought of himself Ã¢â¬â I'd started to worry about showing up with him at the bonfire, wondering if the werewolves would consider me a traitor now. Would they be angry with Jacob for inviting me? Would I ruin the party? But when Jacob had towed me out of the forest to the clifftop meeting place Ã¢â¬â where the fire already roared brighter than the cloud-obscured sun Ã¢â¬â it had all been very casual and light. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, vampire girl!Ã¢â¬ Embry had greeted me loudly. Quil had jumped up to give me a high five and kiss me on the cheek. Emily had squeezed my hand when we'd sat on the cool stone ground beside her and Sam. Other than a few teasing complaints Ã¢â¬â mostly by Paul Ã¢â¬â about keeping the bloodsucker stench downwind, I was treated like someone who belonged. It wasn't just kids in attendance, either. Billy was here, his wheelchair stationed at what seemed the natural head of the circle. Beside him on a folding lawn chair, looking quite brittle, was Quil's ancient, white-haired grandfather, Old Quil. Sue Clearwater, widow of Charlie's friend Harry, had a chair on his other side; her two children, Leah and Seth, were also there, sitting on the ground like the rest of us. This surprised me, but all three were clearly in on the secret now. From the way Billy and Old Quil spoke to Sue, it sounded to me like she'd taken Harry's place on the council. Did that make her children automatic members of La Push's most secret society? I wondered how horrible it was for Leah to sit across the circle from Sam and Emily. Her lovely face betrayed no emotion, but she never looked away from the flames. Looking at the perfection of Leah's features, I couldn't help but compare them to Emily's ruined face. What did Leah think of Emily's scars, now that she knew the truth behind them? Did it seem like justice in her eyes? Little Seth Clearwater wasn't so little anymore. With his huge, happy grin and his long, gangly build, he reminded me very much of a younger Jacob. The resemblance made me smile, and then sigh. Was Seth doomed to have his life change as drastically as the rest of these boys? Was that future why he and his family were allowed to be here? The whole pack was there: Sam with his Emily, Paul, Embry, Quil, and Jared with Kim, the girl he'd imprinted upon. My first impression of Kim was that she was a nice girl, a little shy, and a little plain. She had a wide face, mostly cheekbones, with eyes too small to balance them out. Her nose and mouth were both too broad for traditional beauty. Her flat black hair was thin and wispy in the wind that never seemed to let up atop the cliff. That was my first impression. But after a few hours of watching Jared watch Kim, I could no longer find anything plain about the girl. The way he stared at her! It was like a blind man seeing the sun for the first time. Like a collector finding an undiscovered Da Vinci, like a mother looking into the face of her newborn child. His wondering eyes made me see new things about her Ã¢â¬â how her skin looked like russet-colored silk in the firelight, how the shape of her lips was a perfect double curve, how white her teeth were against them, how long her eyelashes were, brushing her cheek when she looked down. Kim's skin sometimes darkened when she met Jared's awed gaze, and her eyes would drop as if in embarrassment, but she had a hard time keeping her eyes away from his for any length of time. Watching them, I felt like I better understood what Jacob had told me about imprinting before Ã¢â¬â it's hard to resist that level of commitment and adoration. Kim was nodding off now against Jared's chest, his arms around her. I imagined she would be very warm there. Ã¢â¬Å"It's getting late,Ã¢â¬ I murmured to Jacob. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't start that yet,Ã¢â¬ Jacob whispered back Ã¢â¬â though certainly half the group here had hearing sensitive enough to hear us anyway. Ã¢â¬Å"The best part is coming.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What's the best part? You swallowing an entire cow whole?Ã¢â¬ Jacob chuckled his low, throaty laugh. Ã¢â¬Å"No. That's the finale. We didn't meet just to eat through a week's worth of food. This is technically a council meeting. It's Quil's first time, and he hasn't heard the stories yet. Well, he's heard them, but thiswill be the first time he knows they're true. That tends to make a guy pay closer attention. Kim and Seth and Leah are all first-timers, too.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stories?Ã¢â¬ Jacob scooted back beside me, where I rested against a low ridge of rock. He put his arm over my shoulder and spoke even lower into my ear. Ã¢â¬Å"The histories we always thought were legends,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"The stories of how we came to be. The first is the story of the spirit warriors.Ã¢â¬ It was almost as if Jacob's soft whisper was the introduction. The atmosphere changed abruptly around the low-burning fire. Paul and Embry sat up straighter. Jared nudged Kim and then pulled her gently upright. Emily produced a spiral-bound notebook and a pen, looking exactly like a student set for an important lecture. Sam twisted just slightly beside her Ã¢â¬â so that he was facing the same direction as Old Quil, who was on his other side Ã¢â¬â and suddenly I realized that the elders of the council here were not three, but four in number. Leah Clearwater, her face still a beautiful and emotionless mask, closed her eyes Ã¢â¬â not like she was tired, but as if to help her concentration. Her brother leaned in toward the elders eagerly. The fire crackled, sending another explosion of sparks glittering up against the night. Billy cleared his throat, and, with no more introduction than his son's whisper, began telling the story in his rich, deep voice. The words poured out with precision, as if he knew them by heart, but also with feeling and a subtle rhythm. Like poetry performed by its author. Ã¢â¬Å"The Quileutes have been a small people from the beginning,Ã¢â¬ Billy said. Ã¢â¬Å"And we are a small people still, but we have never disappeared. This is because there has always been magic in our blood. It wasn't always the magic of shape-shifting Ã¢â¬â that came later. First, we were spirit warriors.Ã¢â¬ Never before had I recognized the ring of majesty that was in Billy Black's voice, though I realized now that this authority had always been there. Emily's pen sprinted across the sheets of paper as she tried to keep up with him. Ã¢â¬Å"In the beginning, the tribe settled in this harbor and became skilled ship builders and fishermen. But the tribe was small, and the harbor was rich in fish. There were others who coveted our land, and we were too small to hold it. A larger tribe moved against us, and we took to our ships to escape them. Ã¢â¬Å"Kaheleha was not the first spirit warrior, but we do not remember the stories that came before his. We do not remember who was the first to discover this power, or how it had been used before this crisis. Kaheleha was the first great Spirit Chief in our history. In this emergency, Kaheleha used the magic to defend our land. Ã¢â¬Å"He and all his warriors left the ship Ã¢â¬â not their bodies, but their spirits. Their women watched over the bodies and the waves, and the men took their spirits back to our harbor. Ã¢â¬Å"They could not physically touch the enemy tribe, but they had other ways. The stories tell us that they could blow fierce winds into their enemy's camps; they could make a great screaming in the wind that terrified their foes. The stories also tell us that the animals could see the spirit warriors and understand them; the animals would do their bidding. Ã¢â¬Å"Kaheleha took his spirit army and wreaked havoc on the intruders. This invading tribe had packs of big, thick-furred dogs that they used to pull their sleds in the frozen north. The spirit warriors turned the dogs against their masters and then brought a mighty infestation of bats up from the cliff caverns. They used the screaming wind to aid the dogs in confusing the men. The dogs and bats won. The survivors scattered, calling our harbor a cursed place. The dogs ran wild when the spirit warriors released them. The Quileutes returned to their bodies and their wives, victorious. Ã¢â¬Å"The other nearby tribes, the Hohs and the Makahs, made treaties with the Quileutes. They wanted nothing to do with our magic. We lived in peace with them. When an enemy came against us, the spirit warriors would drive them off. Ã¢â¬Å"Generations passed. Then came the last great Spirit Chief, Taha Aki. He was known for his wisdom, and for being a man of peace. The people lived well and content in his care. Ã¢â¬Å"But there was one man, Utlapa, who was not content.Ã¢â¬ A low hiss ran around the fire. I was too slow to see where it came from. Billy ignored it and went on with the legend. Ã¢â¬Å"Utlapa was one of Chief Taha Aki's strongest spirit warriors Ã¢â¬â a powerful man, but a grasping man, too. He thought the people should use their magic to expand their lands, to enslave the Hohs and the Makahs and build an empire. Ã¢â¬Å"Now, when the warriors were their spirit selves, they knew each other's thoughts. Taha Aki saw what Utlapa dreamed, and was angry with Utlapa. Utlapa was commanded to leave the people, and never use his spirit self again. Utlapa was a strong man, but the chief's warriors outnumbered him. He had no choice but to leave. The furious outcast hid in the forest nearby, waiting for a chance to get revenge against the chief. Ã¢â¬Å"Even in times of peace, the Spirit Chief was vigilantin protecting his people. Often, he would go to a sacred, secret place in the mountains. He would leave his body behind and sweep down through the forests and along the coast, making sure no threat approached. Ã¢â¬Å"One day when Taha Aki left to perform this duty, Utlapa followed. At first, Utlapa simply planned to kill the chief, but this plan had its drawbacks. Surely the spirit warriors would seek to destroy him, and they could follow faster than he could escape. As he hid in the rocks and watched the chief prepare to leave his body, another plan occurred to him. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki left his body in the secret place and flew with the winds to keep watch over his people. Utlapa waited until he was sure the chief had traveled some distance with his spirit self. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki knew it the instant that Utlapa had joined him in the spirit world, and he also knew Utlapa's murderous plan. He raced back to his secret place, but even the winds weren't fast enough to save him. When he returned, his body was already gone. Utlapa's body lay abandoned, but Utlapa had not left Taha Aki with an escape Ã¢â¬â he had cut his own body's throat with Taha Aki's hands. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki followed his body down the mountain. He screamed at Utlapa, but Utlapa ignored him as if he were mere wind. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki watched with despair as Utlapa took his place as chief of the Quileutes. For a few weeks, Utlapa did nothing but make sure that everyone believed he was Taha Aki. Then the changes began Ã¢â¬â Utlapa's first edict was to forbid any warrior to enter the spirit world. He claimed that he'd had a vision of danger, but really he was afraid. He knew that Taha Aki would be waiting for the chance to tell his story. Utlapa was also afraid to enter the spirit world himself, knowing Taha Aki would quickly claim his body. So his dreams of conquest with a spirit warrior army were impossible, and he sought to content himself with ruling over the tribe. He became a burden Ã¢â¬â seeking privileges that Taha Aki had never requested, refusing to work alongside his warriors, taking a young second wife and then a third, though Taha Aki's wife lived on Ã¢â¬â something unheard of in the tribe. Taha Aki watched in helpless fury. Ã¢â¬Å"Eventually, Taha Aki tried to kill his body to save the tribe from Utlapa's excesses. He brought a fierce wolf down from the mountains, but Utlapa hid behind his warriors. When the wolf killed a young man who was protecting the false chief, Taha Aki felt horrible grief. He ordered the wolf away. Ã¢â¬Å"All the stories tell us that it was no easy thing to be a spirit warrior. It was more frightening than exhilarating to be freed from one's body. This is why they only used their magic in times of need. The chief's solitary journeys to keep watch were a burden and a sacrifice. Being bodiless was disorienting, uncomfortable, horrifying. Taha Aki had been away from his body for so long at this point that he was in agony. He felt he was doomed Ã¢â¬â never to cross over to the final land where his ancestors waited, stuck in this torturous nothingness forever. Ã¢â¬Å"The great wolf followed Taha Aki's spirit as he twisted and writhed in agony through the woods. The wolf was very large for its kind, and beautiful. Taha Aki was suddenly jealous of the dumb animal. At least it had a body. At least it had a life. Even life as an animal would be better than this horrible empty consciousness. Ã¢â¬Å"And then Taha Aki had the idea that changed us all. He asked the great wolf to make room for him, to share. The wolf complied. Taka Aki entered the wolf's body with relief and gratitude. It was not his human body, but it was better than the void of the spirit world. Ã¢â¬Å"As one, the man and the wolf returned to the village on the harbor. The people ran in fear, shouting for the warriors to come. The warriors ran to meet the wolf with their spears. Utlapa, of course, stayed safely hidden. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki did not attack his warriors. He retreated slowly from them, speaking with his eyes and trying to yelp the songs of his people. The warriors began to realize that the wolf was no ordinary animal, that there was a spirit influencing it. One older warrior, a man name Yut, decided to disobey the false chief's order and try to communicate with the wolf. Ã¢â¬Å"As soon as Yut crossed to the spirit world, Taha Aki left the wolf Ã¢â¬â the animal waited tamely for his return Ã¢â¬â to speak to him. Yut gathered the truth in an instant, and welcomed his true chief home. Ã¢â¬Å"At this time, Utlapa came to see if the wolf had been defeated. When he saw Yut lyinglifeless on the ground, surrounded by protective warriors, he realized what was happening. He drew his knife and raced forward to kill Yut before he could return to his body. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËTraitor,' he screamed, and the warriors did not know what to do. The chief had forbidden spirit journeys, and it was the chief's decision how to punish those who disobeyed. Ã¢â¬Å"Yut jumped back into his body, but Utlapa had his knife at his throat and a hand covering his mouth. Taha Aki's body was strong, and Yut was weak with age. Yut could not say even one word to warn the others before Utlapa silenced him forever. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki watched as Yut's spirit slipped away to the final lands that were barred to Taha Aki for all eternity. He felt a great rage, more powerful than anything he'd felt before. He entered the big wolf again, meaning to rip Utlapa's throat out. But, as he joined the wolf, the greatest magic happened. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki's anger was the anger of a man. The love he had for his people and the hatred he had for their oppressor were too vast for the wolf's body, too human. The wolf shuddered, and Ã¢â¬â before the eyes of the shocked warriors and Utlapa Ã¢â¬â transformed into a man. Ã¢â¬Å"The new man did not look like Taha Aki's body. He was far more glorious. He was the flesh interpretation of Taha Aki's spirit. The warriors recognized him at once, though, for they had flown with Taha Aki's spirit. Ã¢â¬Å"Utlapa tried to run, but Taha Aki had the strength of the wolf in his new body. He caught the thief and crushed the spirit from him before he could jump out of the stolen body. Ã¢â¬Å"The people rejoiced when they understood what had happened. Taha Aki quickly set everything right, working again with his people and giving the young wives back to their families. The only change he kept in place was the end of the spirit travels. He knew that it was too dangerous now that the idea of stealing a life was there. The spirit warriors were no more. Ã¢â¬Å"From that point on, Taha Aki was more than either wolf or man. They called him Taha Aki the Great Wolf, or Taha Aki the Spirit Man. He led the tribe for many, many years, for he did not age. When danger threatened, he would resume his wolf-self to fight or frighten the enemy. The people dwelt in peace. Taha Aki fathered many sons, and some of these found that, after they had reached the age of manhood, they, too, could transform into wolves. The wolves were all different, because they were spirit wolves and reflected the man they were inside.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So that's why Sam is all black,Ã¢â¬ Quil muttered under his breath, grinning. Ã¢â¬Å"Black heart, black fur.Ã¢â¬ I was so involved in the story, it was a shock to come back to the present, to the circle around the dying fire. With another shock, I realized that the circle was made up of Taha Aki's great Ã¢â¬â to however many degrees Ã¢â¬â grandsons. The fire threw a volley of sparks into the sky, and they shivered and danced, making shapes that were almost decipherable. Ã¢â¬Å"And your chocolate fur reflects what?Ã¢â¬ Sam whispered back to Quil. Ã¢â¬Å"How sweet you are?Ã¢â¬ Billy ignored their jibes. Ã¢â¬Å"Some of the sons became warriors with Taha Aki, and they no longer aged. Others, who did not like the transformation, refused to join the pack of wolf-men. These began to age again, and the tribe discovered that the wolf-men could grow old like anyone else if they gave up their spirit wolves. Taha Aki had lived the span of three old men's lives. He had married a third wife after the deaths of the first two, and found in her his true spirit wife. Though he had loved the others, this was something else. He decided to give up his spirit wolf so that he would die when she did. Ã¢â¬Å"That is how the magic came to us, but it is not the end of the story. . . .Ã¢â¬ He looked at Old Quil Ateara, who shifted in his chair, straightening his frail shoulders. Billy took a drink from a bottle of water and wiped his forehead. Emily's pen never hesitated as she scribbled furiously on the paper. Ã¢â¬Å"That was the story of the spirit warriors,Ã¢â¬ Old Quil began in a thin tenor voice. Ã¢â¬Å"This is the story of the third wife's sacrifice. Ã¢â¬Å"Many years after Taha Aki gave up his spirit wolf, when he was an old man, trouble began in the north, with the Makahs. Several young women of their tribe had disappeared, and they blamed it on the neighboring wolves, who they feared and mistrusted. The wolf-men could still read each other's thoughts while in their wolf forms, just like their ancestors had while in their spirit forms. They knew that none of their number was to blame. Taha Aki tried to pacify the Makah chief, but there was too much fear. Taha Aki did not want to have a war on his hands. He was no longer a warrior to lead his people. He charged his oldest wolf-son, Taha Wi, with finding the true culprit before hostilities began. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Wi led the five other wolves in his pack on a search through the mountains, looking for any evidence of the missing Makahs. They came across something they had never encountered before Ã¢â¬â a strange, sweet scent in the forest that burned their noses to the point of pain.Ã¢â¬ I shrank a little closer to Jacob's side. I saw the corner of his mouth twitch with humor, and his arm tightened around me. Ã¢â¬Å"They did not know what creature would leave such a scent, but they followed it,Ã¢â¬ Old Quil continued. His quavering voice did not have the majesty of Billy's, but it had a strange, fierce edge of urgency about it. My pulse jumped as his words came faster. Ã¢â¬Å"They found faint traces of human scent, and human blood, along the trail. They were sure this was the enemy they were searching for. Ã¢â¬Å"The journey took them so far north that Taha Wi sent half the pack, the younger ones, back to the harbor to report to Taha Aki. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Wi and his two brothers did not return. Ã¢â¬Å"The younger brothers searched for their elders, but found only silence. Taha Aki mourned for his sons. He wished to avenge his sons' death, but he was old. He went to the Makah chief in his mourning clothes and told him everything that had happened. The Makah chief believed his grief, and tensions ended between the tribes. Ã¢â¬Å"A year later, two Makah maidens disappeared from their homes on the same night. The Makahs called on the Quileute wolves at once, who found the same sweet stink all through the Makah village. The wolves went on the hunt again. Ã¢â¬Å"Only one came back. He was Yaha Uta, the oldest son of Taka Aki's third wife, and the youngest in the pack. He brought something with him that had never been seen in all the days of the Quileutes Ã¢â¬â a strange, cold, stony corpse that he carried in pieces. All who were of Taha Aki's blood, even those who had never been wolves, could smell the piercing smell of the dead creature. This was the enemy of the Makahs. Ã¢â¬Å"Yaha Uta described what had happened: he and his brothers had found the creature, who looked like a man but was hard as a granite rock, with the two Makah daughters. One girl was already dead, white and bloodless on the ground. The other was in the creature's arms, his mouth at her throat. She may have been alive when they came upon the hideous scene, but the creature quickly snapped her neck and tossed her lifeless body to the ground when they approached. His white lips were covered in her blood, and his eyes glowed red. Ã¢â¬Å"Yaha Uta described the fierce strength and speed of the creature. One of his brothers quickly became a victim when he underestimated that strength. The creature ripped him apart like a doll. Yaha Uta and his other brother were more wary. They worked together, coming at the creature from the sides, outmaneuvering it. They had to reach the very limits of their wolf strength and speed, something that had never been tested before. The creature was hard as stone and cold as ice. They found that only their teeth could damage it. They began to rip small pieces of the creature apart while it fought them. Ã¢â¬Å"But the creature learned quickly, and soon was matching their maneuvers. It got its hands on Yaha Uta's brother. Yaha Uta found an opening on the creature's throat, and he lunged. His teeth tore the head off the creature, but the hands continued to mangle his brother. Ã¢â¬Å"Yaha Uta ripped the creature into unrecognizable chunks, tearing pieces apart in a desperate attempt to save his brother. He was too late, but, in the end, the creature was destroyed. Ã¢â¬Å"Or so they thought. Yaha Uta laid the reeking remains out to be examined by the elders. One severed hand lay beside a piece of the creature's granite arm. The two pieces touched when the elders poked them with sticks, and the hand reached out towards the arm piece, trying to reassemble itself. Ã¢â¬Å"Horrified, the elders set fire to the remains. A great cloud of choking, vile smoke polluted the air. When there was nothing but ashes, they separated the ashes into many small bags and spread them far and wide Ã¢â¬â some in the ocean, some in the forest, some in the cliff caverns. Taha Aki wore one bag around his neck, so he would be warned if the creature ever tried to put himself together again.Ã¢â¬ Old Quil paused and looked at Billy. Billy pulled out a leather thong from around his neck. Hanging from the end was a small bag, blackened with age. A few people gasped. I might have been one of them. Ã¢â¬Å"They called it The Cold One, the Blood Drinker, and lived in fear that it was not alone. They only had one wolf protector left, young Yaha Uta. Ã¢â¬Å"They did not have long to wait. The creature had a mate, another blood drinker, who came to the Quileutes seeking revenge. Ã¢â¬Å"The stories say that the Cold Woman was the most beautiful thing human eyes had ever seen. She looked like the goddess of the dawn when she entered the village that morning; the sun was shining for once, and it glittered off her white skin and lit the golden hair that flowed down to her knees. Her face was magical in its beauty, her eyes black in her white face. Some fell to their knees to worship her. Ã¢â¬Å"She asked something in a high, piercing voice, in a language no one had ever heard. The people were dumbfounded, not knowing how to answer her. There was none of Taha Aki's blood among the witnesses but one small boy. He clung to his mother and screamed that the smell was hurting his nose. One of the elders, on his way to council, heard the boy and realized what had come among them. He yelled for the people to run. She killed him first. Ã¢â¬Å"There were twenty witnesses to the Cold Woman's approach. Two survived, only because she grew distracted by the blood, and paused to sate her thirst. They ran to Taha Aki, who sat in counsel with the other elders, his sons, and his third wife. Ã¢â¬Å"Yaha Uta transformed into his spirit wolf as soon as he heard the news. He went to destroy the blood drinker alone. Taha Aki, his third wife, his sons, and his elders followed behind him. Ã¢â¬Å"At first they could not find the creature, only the evidence of her attack. Bodies lay broken, a few drained of blood, strewn across the road where she'd appeared. Then they heard the screams and hurried to the harbor. Ã¢â¬Å"A handful of the Quileutes had run to the ships for refuge. She swam after them like a shark, and broke the bow of their boat with her incredible strength. When the ship sank, she caught those trying to swim away and broke them, too. Ã¢â¬Å"She saw the great wolf on the shore, and she forgot the fleeing swimmers. She swam so fast she was a blur and came, dripping and glorious, to stand before Yaha Uta. She pointed at him with one white finger and asked another incomprehensible question. Yaha Uta waited. Ã¢â¬Å"It was a close fight. She was not the warrior her mate had been. But Yaha Uta was alone Ã¢â¬â there was no one to distract her fury from him. Ã¢â¬Å"When Yaha Uta lost, Taha Aki screamed in defiance. He limped forward and shifted into an ancient, white-muzzled wolf. The wolf was old, but this was Taha Aki the Spirit Man, and his rage made him strong. The fight began again. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki's third wife had just seen her son die before her. Now her husband fought, and she had no hope that he could win. She'd heard every word the witnesses to the slaughter had told the council. She'd heard the story of Yaha Uta's first victory, and knew that his brother's diversion had saved him. Ã¢â¬Å"The third wife grabbed a knife from the belt of one of the sons who stood beside her. They were all young sons, not yet men, and she knew they would die when their father failed. Ã¢â¬Å"The third wife ran toward the Cold Woman with the dagger raised high. The Cold Woman smiled, barely distracted from her fight with the old wolf. She had no fear of the weak human woman or the knife that would not even scratch her skin, and she was about to deliver the death blow to Taha Aki. Ã¢â¬Å"And then the third wife did something the Cold Woman did not expect. She fell to her knees at the blood drinker's feet and plunged the knife into her own heart. Ã¢â¬Å"Blood spurted through the third wife's fingers and splashed against the Cold Woman. The blood drinker could not resist the lure of the fresh blood leaving the third wife's body. Instinctively, she turned to the dying woman, for one second entirely consumed by thirst. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki's teeth closed around her neck. Ã¢â¬Å"That was not the end of the fight, but Taha Aki was not alone now. Watching their mother die, two young sons felt such rage that they sprang forth as their spirit wolves, though they were not yet men. With their father, they finished the creature. Ã¢â¬Å"Taha Aki never rejoined the tribe. He never changed back to a man again. He lay for one day beside the body of the third wife, growling whenever anyone tried to touch her, and then he went into the forest and never returned. Ã¢â¬Å"Trouble with the cold ones was rare from that time on. Taha Aki's sons guarded the tribe until their sons were old enough to take their places. There were never more than three wolves at a time. It was enough. Occasionally a blood drinker would come through these lands, but they were taken by surprise, not expecting the wolves. Sometimes a wolf would die, but never were they decimated again like that first time. They'd learned how to fight the cold ones, and they passed the knowledge on, wolf mind to wolf mind, spirit to spirit, father to son. Ã¢â¬Å"Time passed, and the descendants of Taha Aki no longer became wolves when they reached manhood. Only in a great while, if a cold one was near, would the wolves return. The cold ones always came in ones and twos, and the pack stayed small. Ã¢â¬Å"A bigger coven came, and your own great-grandfathers prepared to fight them off. But the leader spoke to Ephraim Black as if he were a man, and promised not to harm the Quileutes. His strange yellow eyes gave some proof to his claim that they were not the same as other blood drinkers. The wolves were outnumbered; there was no need for the cold ones to offer a treaty when they could have won the fight. Ephraim accepted. They've stayed true to their side, though their presence does tend to draw in others. Ã¢â¬Å"And their numbers have forced a larger pack than the tribe has ever seen,Ã¢â¬ Old Quil said, and for one moment his black eyes, all but buried in the wrinkles of skin folded around them, seemed to rest on me. Ã¢â¬Å"Except, of course, in Taha Aki's time,Ã¢â¬ he said, and then he sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"And so the sons of our tribe again carry the burden and share the sacrifice their fathers endured before them.Ã¢â¬ All was silent for a long moment. The living descendants of magic and legend stared at one another across the fire with sadness in their eyes. All but one. Ã¢â¬Å"Burden,Ã¢â¬ he scoffed in a low voice. Ã¢â¬Å"I think it's cool.Ã¢â¬ Quil's full lower lip pouted out a little bit. Across the dying fire, Seth Clearwater Ã¢â¬â his eyes wide with adulation for the fraternity of tribal protectors Ã¢â¬â nodded his agreement. Billy chuckled, low and long, and the magic seemed to fade into the glowing embers. Suddenly, it was just a circle of friends again. Jared flicked a small stone at Quil, and everyone laughed when it made him jump. Low conversations murmured around us, teasing and casual. Leah Clearwater's eyes did not open. I thought I saw something sparkling on her cheek like a tear, but when I looked back a moment later it was gone. Neither Jacob nor I spoke. He was so still beside me, his breath so deep and even, that I thought he might be close to sleep. My mind was a thousand years away. I was not thinking of Yaha Uta or the other wolves, or the beautiful Cold Woman Ã¢â¬â I could picture her only too easily. No, I was thinking of someone outside the magic altogether. I was trying to imagine the face of the unnamed woman who had saved the entire tribe, the third wife. Just a human woman, with no special gifts or powers. Physically weaker and slower than any of the monsters in the story. But she had been the key, the solution. She'd saved her husband, her young sons, her tribe. I wish they'd remembered her name. . . . Something shook my arm. Ã¢â¬Å"C'mon, Bells,Ã¢â¬ Jacob said in my ear. Ã¢â¬Å"We're here.Ã¢â¬ I blinked, confused because the fire seemed to have disappeared. I glared into the unexpected darkness, trying to make sense of my surroundings. It took me a minute to realize that I was no longer on the cliff. Jacob and I were alone. I was still under his arm, but I wasn't on the ground anymore. How did I get in Jacob's car? Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, crap!Ã¢â¬ I gasped as I realized that I had fallen asleep. Ã¢â¬Å"How late is it? Dang it, where's that stupid phone?Ã¢â¬ I patted my pockets, frantic and coming up empty. Ã¢â¬Å"Easy. It's not even midnight yet. And I already called him for you. Look Ã¢â¬â he's waiting there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Midnight?Ã¢â¬ I repeated stupidly, still disoriented. I stared into the darkness, and my heartbeat picked up when my eyes made out the shape of the Volvo, thirty yards away. I reached for the door handle. Ã¢â¬Å"Here,Ã¢â¬ Jacob said, and he put a small shape into my other hand. The phone. Ã¢â¬Å"You called Edward for me?Ã¢â¬ My eyes were adjusted enough to see the bright gleam of Jacob's smile. Ã¢â¬Å"I figured if I played nice, I'd get more time with you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks, Jake,Ã¢â¬ I said, touched. Ã¢â¬Å"Really, thank you. And thanks forinviting me tonight. That was . . .Ã¢â¬ Words failed me. Ã¢â¬Å"Wow. That was something else.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And you didn't even stay up to watch me swallow a cow.Ã¢â¬ He laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I'm glad you liked it. It was . . . nice for me. Having you there.Ã¢â¬ There was a movement in the dark distance Ã¢â¬â something pale ghosting against the black trees. Pacing? Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, he's not so patient, is he?Ã¢â¬ Jacob said, noticing my distraction. Ã¢â¬Å"Go ahead. But come back soon, okay?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, Jake,Ã¢â¬ I promised, cracking the car door open. Cold air washed across my legs and made me shiver. Ã¢â¬Å"Sleep tight, Bells. Don't worry about anything Ã¢â¬â I'll be watching out for you tonight.Ã¢â¬ I paused, one foot on the ground. Ã¢â¬Å"No, Jake. Get some rest, I'll be fine.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, sure,Ã¢â¬ he said, but he sounded more patronizing than agreeing. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËNight, Jake. Thanks.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËNight, Bella,Ã¢â¬ he whispered as I hurried into the darkness. Edward caught me at the boundary line. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella,Ã¢â¬ he said, relief strong in his voice; his arms wound tightly around me. Ã¢â¬Å"Hi. Sorry I'm so late. I fell asleep and -Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I know. Jacob explained.Ã¢â¬ He started toward the car, and I staggered woodenly at his side. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you tired? I could carry you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm fine.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Let's get you home and in bed. Did you have a nice time?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah Ã¢â¬â it was amazing, Edward. I wish you could have come. I can't even explain it. Jake's dad told us the old legends and it was like . . . like magic.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You'll have to tell me about it. After you've slept.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I won't get it right,Ã¢â¬ I said, and then I yawned hugely. Edward chuckled. He opened my door for me, lifted me in, and buckled my seat belt around me. Bright lights flashed on and swept across us. I waved toward Jacob's headlights, but I didn't know if he saw the gesture. That night Ã¢â¬â after I'd gotten past Charlie, who didn't give me as much trouble as I'd expected because Jacob had called him, too Ã¢â¬â instead of collapsing in bed right away, I leaned out the open window while I waited for Edward to come back. The night was surprisingly cold, almost wintry. I hadn't noticed it at all on the windy cliffs; I imagined that had less to do with the fire than it did with sitting next to Jacob. Icy droplets spattered against my face as the rain began to fall. It was too dark to see much besides the black triangles of the spruces leaning and shaking with the wind. But I strained my eyes anyway, searching for other shapes in the storm. A pale silhouette, moving like a ghost through the black . . . or maybe the shadowy outline of an enormous wolf. . . . My eyes were too weak. Then there was a movement in the night, right beside me. Edward slid through my open window, his hands colder than the rain. Ã¢â¬Å"Is Jacob out there?Ã¢â¬ I asked, shivering as Edward pulled me into the circle of his arm. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes . . . somewhere. And Esme's on her way home.Ã¢â¬ I sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"It's so cold and wet. This is silly.Ã¢â¬ I shivered again. He chuckled. Ã¢â¬Å"It's only cold to you, Bella.Ã¢â¬ It was cold in my dream that night, too, maybe because I slept in Edward's arms. But I dreamt I was outside in the storm, the wind whipping my hair in my face and blinding my eyes. I stood on the rocky crescent of First Beach, trying to understand the quickly moving shapes I could only dimly see in the darkness at the shore's edge. At first, there was nothing but a flash of white and black, darting toward each other and dancing away. And then, as if the moon had suddenly broken from the clouds, I could see everything. Rosalie, her hair swinging wet and golden down to the back of her knees, was lunging at an enormous wolf Ã¢â¬â its muzzle shot through with silver Ã¢â¬â that I instinctively recognized as Billy Black. I broke into a run, but found myself moving in the frustrating slow motion of dreamers. I tried to scream to them, to tell them to stop, but my voice was stolen by the wind, and I could make no sound. I waved my arms, hoping to catch their attention. Something flashed in my hand, and I noticed for the first time that my right hand wasn't empty. I held a long, sharp blade, ancient and silver, crusted in dried, blackened blood. I cringed away from the knife, and my eyes snapped open to the quiet darkness of my bedroom. The first thing I realized was that I was not alone, and I turned to bury my face in Edward's chest, knowing the sweet scent of his skin would chase the nightmare away more effectively than anything else. Ã¢â¬Å"Did I wake you?Ã¢â¬ he whispered. There was the sound of paper, the ruffling of pages, and a faint thump as something light fell to the wooden floor. Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ I mumbled, sighing in contentment as his arms tightened around me. Ã¢â¬Å"I had a bad dream.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want to tell me about it?Ã¢â¬ I shook my head. Ã¢â¬Å"Too tired. Maybe in the morning, if I remember.Ã¢â¬ I felt a silent laugh shake through him. Ã¢â¬Å"In the morning,Ã¢â¬ he agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"What were you reading?Ã¢â¬ I muttered, not really awake at all. Ã¢â¬Å"Wuthering Heights,Ã¢â¬ he said. I frowned sleepily. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought you didn't like that book.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You left it out,Ã¢â¬ he murmured, his soft voice lulling me toward unconsciousness. Ã¢â¬Å"Besides . . . the more time I spend with you, the more human emotions seem comprehensible to me. I'm discovering that I can sympathize with Heathcliff in ways I didn't think possible before.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Mmm,Ã¢â¬ I sighed. He said something else, something low, but I was already asleep. The next morning dawned pearl gray and still. Edward asked me about my dream, but I couldn't get a handle on it. I only remembered that I was cold, and that I was glad he was there when I woke up. He kissed me, long enough to get my pulse racing, and then headed home to change and get his car. I dressed quickly, low on options. Whoever had ransacked my hamper had critically impaired my wardrobe. If it wasn't so frightening, it would be seriously annoying. As I was about to head down for breakfast, I noticed my battered copy of Wuthering Heights lying open on the floor where Edward had dropped it in the night, holding his place the way the damaged binding always held mine. I picked it up curiously, trying to remember what he'd said. Something about feeling sympathy for Heathcliff, of all people. That couldn't be right; I must have dreamed that part. Three words on the open page caught my eye, and I bent my head to read the paragraph more closely. It was Heathcliff speaking, and I knew the passage well. And there you see the distinction between our feelings: had he been in my place and I in his, though I hated him with a hatred that turned my life to gall, I never would have raised a hand against him. You may look incredulous, if you please! I never would have banished him from her society as long as she desired his. The moment her regard ceased, I would have torn his heart out, and drank his blood! But, till then Ã¢â¬â if you don't believe me, you don't know me Ã¢â¬â till then, I would have died by inches before I touched a single hair of his head! The three words that had caught my eye were Ã¢â¬Å"drank his blood.Ã¢â¬ I shuddered. Yes, surely I must have dreamt that Edward said anything positive about Heathcliff. And this page was probably not the page he'd been reading. The book could have fallen open to any page.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
BBA - Project - Research Paper Example The data obtained from such survey was to supplement primary research for the study. About 30 respondents were chosen at random in the area and were asked to fill up a structured questionnaire which was designed by the researcher. The questionnaire had about 20 questions and was a good mix of nominal, ordinal, interval and ration level measurement questions. Additionally, the questionnaire also had one open ended questions for participants to express their views freely. The close ended questions included a few demographic questions had multiple options to make it easy for the respondents to make their best choices. The data obtained from such a survey were quantified and made appropriate for the use of analysis using SPSS tool and to facilitate analysis on Microsoft Excel. The research also made use of secondary data to supplement and provide strength to the results obtained through the primary research. The data of sales for a sports shoe store and a sports equipment store in the area were obtained from the stores and also through local newspaper for the past five years. Such information was used to analyse the sales trend and thereby estimate the feasibility of establishing a store here. Once the data was obtained, the researcher used various statistical tools like Mean Median, Chi Square tests, ANOVA, histograms and such tools for getting various results and interpretations to answer the key research questions. The results obtained were analysed and interpreted to answer the key research question of the feasibility of the sportswear store and the kind of designs that should be kept in store to cater to local demand conditions. From the analysis, the results concluded that opening of a JD store was a feasible idea where people showed keen interest in buying sportswear and the local conditions would fetch high demand from Football and Tennis lovers and also keen interest was shown for regular workout sportswear
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Organisational Performance and Leadership - Essay Example Meanwhile a number of theories have been developed to improve the performance of organisations. This project discusses one such theory which has been framed by Hillgren and Morse. This report will also aim at shedding light on other areas of high performing organisations in order to justify their excellence and stupendous success as compared to their peers. This comparison is deemed necessary in realisation of the fact that the current business scenario is extremely demanding and organisations have to be immensely efficient in order to sustain the high levels of competition. In order to support the fundamental premise of this research, attempts will be made to identify and evaluate the basic elements of high performance organisations. Furthermore, the HPO SCORESÃ¢â ¢ model will also be comprehensively analysed. This assignment identifies four criteria that have been presented by Hillgren and Morse to improve the performance of the organisation. It aims to produce and identify certain common quality characteristics that are considered to be part of Ã¢â¬Å"high performance organisationsÃ¢â¬ (IIBF, 2010, p.2). Instead of designing methods that will facilitate the organisations to achieve greater heights, this article aims to recognise if todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëhigh performing organisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ have certain characteristics in common. It also compares an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance against these criteria. According to the definition generated through the research conducted by Carew et al. (n.d.), Ã¢â¬Å"high performing organisations are enterprises that over time continue to produce outstanding results with the highest level of human satisfaction and commitment to successÃ¢â¬ (Blanchard, 2009, p.9). From this definition it is pretty much comprehensible that these organisations ar e far more well-coordinated in comparison to their peers in terms of human resource management (HRM) and its allied functions. It has been observed that high performing organisations (HPOs)
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Critique an events marketing actions - Essay Example This sporting event, like all sporting events tests will power and endurance. Besides that the thrill associated with car races is legendary as cars and sports drive testosterone simultaneously. The benefits of the Dakar car rally are extremely varied. South America is a land of splendor and its discovery keeps on throwing surprises at motorists and viewers alike. Besides the sporting aspect and the discovery of the worlds different places, an important aspect of Dakar is the development of relationships and the human touch. Dakar has led to a development of many ties and instantaneous friendships between the competitors and the host nations. The cascade of colour also burgeons the culture divide and displays a rich amalgamation of culture of the motorists and the different countries where the races are held. It promotes culture of the host nations and brings the country exposure which is very valuable for the country from tourism point of view. Besides that there are numerous econom ic advantages associated with the Dakar car rally. Some of these are the liked to the logistical requirements needed by the rally which inject funds into the country's economy. A study resulted in finding that the estimate of its direct economic impact reaches 396 million pesos (i.e. 74.3 million euros).(Lavigne). The country's image was also optimized and tourist potential increased which also contributed to intangible benefits for the country which will be reaped in the years to come. The rally is all encompassing and is based on two core values, courage and endurance. The setting was in the Sahara, the most beautiful and mystical of all deserts and the effects are like an imprinted tattoo. For people in Africa where it was previously held they are the highlights of the normally uneventful life. For people watching it on TV, it is pure entertainment and for sponsors an extreme amount of exposure. It is a marketing juggernaut which is gold old fashioned selling adventure where ever y thing from toiletries to cars and motorcycles are sold. It is a paradox of cultures and a perfect amalgamation of the two sides of the world: the refined and glitzy Paris and the crude off road places where drivers have to battle difficult conditions. (Lawrence Hacking) Reasons for sponsorship The Dakar car rally, like all other sporting events is a well-sponsored event. Since it is an event which gets international coverage, the sponsors are also international. Sports sponsorship is not a new phenomenon and it is not only dine for social reasons. Not only sponsors fulfill their obligation towards the society but they also get a lot of positive publicity. Quester (P.G., 1996) has stated Ã¢â¬Å"the tacit nature of the message and the emotional involvement of the audience in the sponsored activity suggest that sponsorship may exercise an emotive rather than cognitive influence on consumer behaviourÃ¢â¬ . (Charles Bal). This fact is enough to draw sponsors towards the sporting even t. Ã¢â¬Å"Sponsorship has become a critical element in the integrated marketing communication mix of many private and public sector organizations. Among different types of marketing communication sponsorship is said to be one of the most powerful mediums now used to communicate and form relationships with stakeholders and markets (Skildum-Reid). Thus companies are willing to sponsor events which will bring positive publicity and bring better positioning of the brand and its product. Main
Monday, August 26, 2019
History- access to humanities and social science - Essay Example Social class structures were beginning to break down as common men were able to make fortunes in industry and landowners found it more and more difficult to keep the idyllic life theyÃ¢â¬â¢d constructed alive. Women, too, were beginning to question their allotted place in society as more and more opportunities opened for them in the urban centers of the country, providing them with a means of supporting themselves and freeing themselves from the yoke of male domination. However, at the same time, these positions were not the equal rights positions of modern times, so it was often difficult to determine whether one wanted to sacrifice freedom for comfort or comfort for freedom. Rarely was it possible to attain both. All of these social and economical concerns can be found in the novels written during this time period. Ã¢â¬Å"The Victorian novel, with its emphasis on the realistic portrayal of social life, represented many Victorian issues in the stories of its charactersÃ¢â¬ (Gre enblatt, 2005). By looking at the literature of the age, one can begin to gain a sense of how ideas of gender affected the lives of Victorian men and women whether they were struggling to uphold them or struggling against them. Issues of gender, education and sexuality were tremendous stumbling blocks over which numerous fictional characters and real Victorians had to struggle in order to maintain a respectable standing in society. Within the patriarchal society of the Christian nations, men were expected to operate according to specific rules of behavior, namely that they were to be heterosexual, virile, yet also constrained and sensible of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s good name. It was all right to have intercourse with women to whom one was not married, but that woman must be of a much inferior social status and must not be allowed to cross these boundaries. In novels such as Wuthering
Sunday, August 25, 2019
How Does Knowledge Impact the Development of the Self - Essay Example The views of different authors such as Beth Loffreda, Juhani Pallasmaa, Miller and Spellmeyer as it regards to knowledge will be discussed. The paper will also address how the government, society, religion, family, gender, race and orientation contribute to the creation of self. Acquisition of knowledge Knowledge is acquired through higher education but can also be acquired through plentiful sources such as books, newspapers, the internet, experiences, imagination, and visualization among others. As one interacts with other people in school, work place, social places or even while travelling he or she keeps on learning new things. It is explicitly clear that the acquisition of knowledge can not be confined in the learning institutions alone. Learning takes place every where, whether alone or in the presence of others. Definition of self Self can be referred to as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity, abilities, character and attitudes, particularly in relation to an individual or things outside one self. It is the fundamental qualities distinguishing one individual from another. People have different characteristics and attitudes and this is what defines their behavior and thus identity. How knowledge impacts on the development of the self as discussed by the four authors Human connectedness plays a crucial role in the betterment of self identity in the philosophical and sociological aspects of life. It is the capacity to separate our inner self from the world outside. It enables us to view ourselves as individual persons and also look at ourselves from the perspective of someone else. Juhani Pallasmaa, who is the author of Ã¢â¬Å"The Eyes of the Skin,Ã¢â¬ focuses on the aspects of reasoning as one acquires knowledge from time to time. Acquisition of knowledge brings one to his true sense of self since it makes him or her feel more connected with other people. Knowledge from various sources helps an individual get the true sense of connectivity and existence by associating with other people in the society. According to Pallasmaa, Ã¢â¬Å"one sense of self is dependent upon many different attributes, for example: their occupation, relationships, likes and dislikes, memories, imagination, and dreamsÃ¢â¬ (286). These make a person unique from others. Knowledge thus helps people perceive things differently and this is influenced by the environment we are brought in. It plays an enormous role since it enables individuals to gravely analyze their actions. Perception brings out the question of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. We always ask ourselves how others will view us before we act in any manner. This ensures that there exists a healthy relationship with those we interact with. People express opinions differently depending on what they have gone through in the outside world. Pallasmaa argues that people perceive others based on the physical gestures since vision has more dominance when compared with the other four senses. Knowledge acquired shapes an individual s way of life. It thus determines how one behaves, his social status, friends and the general way of living. Pallasmaa also asserts that, Ã¢â¬Å"while using the internet, one may jump from one page to another, skimming articles and reading emails, but this does not draw away his memories, imagination, and dreamsÃ¢â¬ (286). The sense of self is exposed when our senses are used to give reason to our general actions. Pallasmaa implies the importance
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Week 4 Forum - Assignment Example It is what Edmondson says that Ã¢â¬Å"American popular music is a story of fusion, after fusion after fusion.Ã¢â¬ meaning that jazz and Blues have had their participation in the American society. For example, many pop stars have borrowed heavily from the blues dimension as Elvis Presley, Little Richard and Chuck Berry among others. The years between the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s were marked by renewed efforts by the African Americans in a push for their rights. This is because they wanted equal rights with the Whites who were the majority and were oppressing them. They were demanding for services like unbiased and fulltime employment, right to join workersÃ¢â¬â¢ union, financial integrity, safe and cheap housing, equitable health care and education among other needs. There were efforts over the years meant to achieve the needs which later gave rise to the Civil Rights Movement in the said period. They mainly resolved in non-violent ways of airing their grievances though at times ended in the death of some of them. Their leaders played a prominent role in bringing the people together. The inclusion of African Americans in the World War II helped better the relations between the two races. It made them realize how much they needed each other (Krieger, 15). Popular culture was changing, and notable contri bution can be seen through music like Jazz and
Friday, August 23, 2019
REMEDIES LAW - Essay Example In considering the impact of blame culture, this study will reflect on the attitudes of judges when being asked to apportion liability, and examine case law in this area in order to explore whether recent cases demonstrate reluctance or willingness on the part of judges with regard to the apportioning of blame. Mullender (2006) suggests that the culture of blame might stem from the emergence of professional negligence claims and personal injury claims. In his study he noted that judges had become aware of a rise in the number of claims, some of which appeared to be fake. In McLoughlin v OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 1 Lord Wilberforce warned that Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦such an extension may lead to a proliferation of claims, and possibly fraudulent claims, to the establishment of an industry of lawyers and psychiatrists who will formulate a claim for nervous shock damages, including what in America is called the customary miscarriage, for all, or many, road accidents and industrial accidentsÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËBlame cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ focuses on the need to hold someone accountable for what might otherwise have been considered a mere accident. Atiyah (1997) suggests that the culture of blame exists not only in claims for personal injuries and losses, but also in the criminal sphere, where there is a desperate need to find the person responsible for the crime that has been committed, and to see them punished for their wrongdoing. Vines (2008) argues that previously an injured party would have been prepared to accept an apology for the accident as suitable recompense for the harm caused, but with the insurgence of the Ã¢â¬Ëcompensation cultureÃ¢â¬â¢, apologies are often construed as admissions of guilt, and used in order to claim monetary compensation for the harm. The UK government has attempted to address this assumption through s2 of the Compensation Act 2006 which states that This does not stop the court allowing the adducing of such admissions in court, but is
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Ayatollah Khomeini and Gamal Abdul-Nasser - Essay Example However, this assertion is contested. This is because at the time of the revolution, Iran was experiencing un-employment rate of approximately 30%1. Unemployment is one of the indicators of poor development and economic growth. Based on this fact, the assertion that Iran was politically and economically stable is false, and does not hold any ground. On the other hand, the revolution in Egypt occurred when the country was experiencing a series of poor political and economic governance. Despite the differences in these revolutions, and the two leaders, Gamal Abdul Nasser and Ayatollah Khomeini shared a lot of similarities as well as differences in their leadership structure and system2. One major similarity is that the two leaders were charismatic, and they sought to eliminate any form of opposition to their leadership. For instance, Nasser ordered a crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood, a group that was opposing his leadership, while Ayatollah Khomeini sought to kill any political supporters of the Shah. This paper takes a stand that both Ayatollah Khomeini and Gamal Abdul-Nasser were charismatic leaders, who influenced their societies and people, despite their undemocratic systems of governance. Gamal Abdul Nasser was the second Egyptian president, and he began his presidency in the year 1956, to the time he died, which was in 1970. He played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Egyptian monarch in the year 1952, and as a result, he was rewarded with a post, as a deputy prime minister3. This is an indication that Gamal Abdul Nasser was an important leader to the revolutionaries, and he was held in high esteem. Furthermore, the power and authority that Gamal Abdul Nasser had is depicted when he managed to arrest President Muhammad Naguib, and place him under house arrest.
The Great Depression Essay In 1932, the USA was in an economic depression. The Great Depression. President Hoover introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"Old DealÃ¢â¬ to protect American industries by aiming to prevent the price of imported goods from being lower than the price of local goods. He felt it was up to individual Americans to sort out their own economic problems. With the failure of the Old Deal, Franklin D. Roosevelt offered a Ã¢â¬Å"New DealÃ¢â¬ for America. The Democratic Party nominated Roosevelt to stand for president in 1932. Being more flexible and more willing to experiment the Hoover, Roosevelt won the 1932 elections, have more the 60% of the votes. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s New Deal focused on three things: Relief, Recovery and Reform. These aims were to bring relief to the poor, help the country recover to industry and agriculture, and to prevent another depression by introducing social reforms. The New Deal was not a set plan or strategy, but rather a series of improvisations and experiments to survive the depression and preserve capitalism. During the Great Depression, many banks had failed, wiping out families savings. People had lost confidence in the banks. To restore this confidence, on his second day of office, Roosevelt declared a four-day Ã¢â¬Å"Banking HolidayÃ¢â¬ , where he closed all the banks in order to re-organise themselves. Congress passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act, which only allowed banks with enough money and properly managed accounts to re-open. Roosevelt explained the complexities of the banking problem to the public in his first Ã¢â¬Å"fire-side chatÃ¢â¬ . This restored the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence in the banks. The Depression also made the level of unemployment sky-rocket. To fix this problem, Roosevelt launched many new agencies with the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which created four million new jobs during the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. Some of these agencies were the AAA, CCC, SEC, FERA and the SSA. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) made the government pay farmers not to work. This caused prices to rise and halted overproduction. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) gave direct relief ($) to those who needed it. The Social Securities Act (SSA) was established to provide old-age pensions for workers, survivorÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance and aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind and physically disabled. The SSA received its funds from government taxes. Although Roosevelt was victoriously re-elected in 1936, his reform programme slowed. Factors, such as his failure to re-organise the Supreme Court to get more support for his policies, led to more opposition to government spending and taxes. This was his greatest mistake. Some of the positive out-comes of the New Deal was that it restored optimism and hope to AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s and provided the necessary relief to many. But, there were negative out-comes as well. Of these was that it did not really fix the depression and it left the nation with much debt. It also left people too dependent on the government.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Effectiveness Of Performance Related Pay In The Nhs Management Essay The following report evaluates how the aims of Performance Related Pay (PRP) schemes are underpinned by theory, focuses on how PRP theory relates to the aims and objectives of the NHS and considers how effective the current PRP policy is within the NHS with specific focus on whether the current scheme meets the needs of the current NHS organisation. The NHS has seen relative success where PRP schemes have been applied, with 51% of NHS managers recently commenting that PRP schemes in their trust had resulted in employees working harder. Although 61% of the staff involved with NHS trusts operating these schemes suggested the idea of rewarding performance was divisive and undermined the overall co-operation of its staff . The overall benefits of PRP include facilitating and implementing change in a structured manner, aligning the employees objectives with the wider goals of the organisation and introducing structured rewards in a fair fashion. Although the aims of the PRP scheme may be aligned to the business strategy, they will only succeed if the end goal is enough to motivate the individual. Within the NHS one would suggest there have to be additional concepts for performance management to focus on, such as content, departmental resource and career development for PRP schemes to be a success. When the introduction of PRP to any organisation is applied, it is supposed to encourage fairness and equality with rewards. However criticism of PRP within the NHS organisation suggests that it does not provide fairness and equality. Research has shown that the perception is that PRP benefits those in more fiscal or senior orientated roles than it does for those lower down the organisation. PRP schemes will be hard to introduce to NHS trusts where they do not already exist due to the nature of the structured role orientated pay scale and the inflexible nature of the NHS. This would be further compounded by the unionised nature of the NHS, with the unions likely to resist any move from collectivism to individualism in discussions about pay and contract conditions. Recommendations at the end of the report include consideration to the design of the scheme and how crucial this can be to the schemes future success: the need to manage PRP openly to prevent breakdown of relationships and thus prevent negative impacts on performance overall and the importance of clear management of objectives by individuals best placed to manage their teams. Evaluate how the aims of the Performance Related Payment scheme are underpinned by theory The initial concept of performance related pay (PRP) schemes were introduced as a way to reward employees for completing a specific goal. The sense of reward was expected to act as a motivator therefore the scheme was embraced with high expectations (Daniels, Macdonald, 2005:183). Assessment of organisational reward applications shows that performance is not the only way employees relate to being congratulated on doing a job well. However, it is suggested the benefit of using performance based reward systems has been in the applying of the statistical elements of the method, allowing for a clear and relatively objective means of performance measurement. (Shields, 2007:410/11). This suggests that organisations favour a method which provides a supportive conclusion with quantative evidence to back up decisions made that may favour one individual over another. Secondly the use of PRP schemes have been linked to wider business strategic plans which have sought to align the employees objectives with the wider goals of the organisation (Holbeche, 2009:219). However, performance based reward schemes have been criticised in recent years, despite becoming seen as the norm within organisational structures (Holbeche, 2009:219). Alternative applications can be rewarded through behavioural analysis in line with a set of parameters and goals. However, this method of reward has been argued as being subjective and open to abuse and interpretation (Shields, 2007:410/11). As such the use of performance management against tangible goals as a measure provides something concrete for the employee to be measured against which cannot be refuted (Shields, 2007:411). PRP schemes can however be heavily criticised when there is a belief the targets are not truly achievable (Lai, Tsui, 2009:116). Moreover there is a concern that where targets are consistently not achieved and are deemed inaccurate, the effects can be rapid demotivation with the workforce (Lai, Tsui, 2009:116). An additional aim of PRP can be the encouragement of equality and fairness, this is not that everyone should be paid the same but those that add value are rewarded appropriately in comparison to others that may not contribute to the same level. How does this theory fit into the organisations aims and objectives? The aims and objectives of the NHS centre on measureable statistics such as level of patient care, treatment times, waiting list turnover, number of patients seen and treated, level of discharged patients and sound fiscal management. These are rolled down from central government and managed by the individual NHS Trusts across the country. It is suggested that providing a tangible measure against which to be managed is a key element in the use of PRP within the NHS. The use of tangible goals means the objectives are clear and concise (Shields, 2007:410/11). Furthermore the NHS argues that the use of performance measures means there is an ownership placed onto the employee to perform to their expected level and for their manager to ensure they are learning and developing (Shields, 2007:410/11). The NHS has seen relative success where PRP schemes have been applied (Shields, 2007:411). Under these schemes the employees use individual goal setting applications, which instead of creating conflict; achieved motivation although in-depth assessment of the research found that the goal setting aspect of the measure was the most favoured element (it enabled a clear guide for the reward) the behavioural assessments were deemed subjective (Shields, 2007:411). However one might argue that whilst this may work within a public service sector environment there are contrasts within private industry. The directed use of strategic alignment can pitch departments against each other creating internalised conflict (Schienmann, 2009:142). Furthermore people can be encouraged to apply their focus in a directed way which means they stop looking at the wider picture. In doing this there is the potential to create a funnel and individuals end up working at cross purposes instead of working together (Schienmann, 2009:142). Furthermore contrasting these statistics is the idea that public sector employees see financial reward as a secondary motivator to work harder (OECD, 2005:74). This is supported by research into all public sector environments, which suggests that job content and career development are primary motivators to increase performance (OECD, 2005:74). This is supported with recent research into the NHS management structure. During questioning into applied PRP, 61% of the staff involved with NHS trusts operating these schemes suggested the idea of rewarding performance was divisive and undermined the overall co-operation of its staff (OECD, 2005:73). This was implied to be because there was a lack of team discipline and people worked as individuals. This behaviour was cited as unacceptable within an environment that made life and death choices based on teamwork (OECD, 2005:73). On the other hand the same research contradicts this idea; stating that when questioned 51% of NHS managers suggested that PRP schemes in their trust had resulted in employees working harder (OECD, 2005:74). As such one might argue that the use of performance related pay schemes only work when the individual is financially motivated, and this could be applied to all sectors, public and private. Therefore there is an argument to suggest that although the aims of the PRP scheme may be aligned to the business strategy they will only succeed if the end goal is enough to motivate the individual. Within the NHS one would suggest there have to be additional concepts for performance management to focus on such as content, departmental resource and career development. Although the theory of PRP may be applicable, the practice does not necessarily translate into a high performing team. Critically Evaluate the Effectiveness of this Scheme One might debate the effectiveness of the performance related pay schemes within the NHS depending on the expected outcome. It is assumed that the expectation within employee groups from the introduction of PRP is increased morale and improved performance which therefore increases operational output (Lai, Tsui, 2009:116). Yet it should also be considered that the scheme can be used as a method to employ goal setting policy within an establishment where this has not been done before. Research suggests that the introduction of PRP validates the implementation of goal setting within public sector environments regardless of motivational output (OECD, 2005:76).This could be considered a significant benefit of the application of PRP within a wider assessment of the scheme. Furthermore the implementation of PRP provides the opportunity to redefine established organisational performance norms (OECD, 2005:76) and allow the NHS the advantage of being able to implement change in a structured manner. However it can also be argued that change in itself carries the potential for overall internalised threat (Huston, Marquis, 2008:178). Research suggests that when not welcomed, change has the ability to inject conflict into the organisational structure (Huston, Marquis, 2008:178). This means the focus moves away from the primary strategic aim. Moreover, conflict can send negativity around the workplace, ensuring non-compliance, and removing any degree of support for any performance based schemes (Huston, Marquis, 2008:178). Unfortunately it would appear the scale for conflict is high within the NHS when PRP is discussed. If the trust is considered as a business organisation the application of PRP means that pay adjustments can be applied in a measured way which can therefore become a strength (OECD, 2005:76). However, this means the counter argument becomes a weakness from the employees perspective (OECD, 2005:76). As such one would argue that changing to a PRP scheme will reduce the involvement of the trade unions because the focus moves from collectivism to individualism as a discipline (Gall, 2003:13). This could be seen as a weakness because unlike privatised industry the NHS environment is cited as being more static with less flexibility between positions and employee expectations (Gall, 2003:13). It is suggested that the termination of the collectivism power would leave NHS staff negotiating for contracts in the same way private industry do. This leaves the employees open to increased discrimination between financial rewards at the same grade levels. This is seen with the introduction of flexible working hours for employees, which effectively abolishes the overtime model for staff, and the theory implies that staff would no longer be financially compensated for working additional hours over their standard agreed contract rate (OECD, 2005:76). On the other hand the introduction of flexible working is defended as necessary within modern society. As such this implies that the change in financial application by moving to PRP incentives should not be seen as a weakness but a strength or opportunity to open the job market up to new applicants. Moreover research suggests that the use of performance related pay within the NHS environment provides a recruitment incentive and improves staff retention in the long term (OECD, 2005:76). Conclude whether the scheme meets the needs of the organisation One might argue that the introduction of PRP to any organisation is applied to encourage fairness and equality with rewards (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009:160). However criticism of PRP within the NHS organisation suggests that it does not provide fairness and equality with its rewards (Abel, Esmail, 2006). Research suggests that although PRP is adopted, there are inherent weaknesses in the application of the initiative and previous discriminations against gender and ethnicity remain prevalent despite the results of performance based measures (Abel, Esmail, 2006). This is further supported with a government review of the NHS performance review process. This research found a large number of consultants who voiced their concerns over both racial and gender discrimination within the PRP, however they also suggested discrimination based on their medical specialism and the degree to which the individual contributed towards management decisions existed alongside traditional discriminations (Abel, Esmail, 2006). Thus one may suggest that the performance reviews favoured those who worked in more high profile specialisms, which could provide additional funding. On the flip side of this discussion however is the consideration that those lower in the organisational structure would welcome the opportunity for performance based pay rewards in order to grow their roles and develop their careers. However this research implies their performance is isolated in comparison to that which benefits the wider business model needs. In recent research conducted in this area it was concluded that incentive polices such as PRP have provided a positive knock on effect where quality and safety are concerned. This point is interesting as in an environment such as nursing, one would have assumed quality of care and safety are principle fundamentals of patient expectations. However performance is massively improved when the employee is offered additional reward for reaching targets in these fields (Kurtzman et al, 2011). The research however goes on to suggest that the use of incentive schemes place an increased burden and creates a blame culture for nurses without addressing the infra-structure needs that the NHS trusts require to meet the targets set for them, This shows that the adaptation of PRP can be seen as being a double edged sword within the NHS system (Kurtzman et al, 2011). Report Conclusion The research appears to suggest that the performance based incentive schemes meet the base needs of the NHS as they make the basic principles of nursing happen in accordance with expectations. However an incentive scheme such as PRP cannot overcome the lack of adequate environment, staffing levels and low salary level. As such this implies that performance based pay does not work as a motivator for the existing workforce. Neither would one conclude that it works as a recruitment incentive as was previously suggested. Instead the implication is that the use of performance based incentive schemes means that those with power can continue to reward those they single out for success, whilst the remainder of the workplace organisation are left to manage with inadequate environments in which to meet the targets they are given. One might determine an outcome borne from two potential directions. In one case if the NHS is seen as an organisational structure and not as a public service, the use of PRP may be seen as successful. As a scheme this allows management to reward those individuals who are benefiting the NHS. From within this it can be assumed the discrimination that occurs is justified. However on the other side if the NHS is viewed as a public service with its key members being the front line staff, one would have to conclude that PRP does not benefit the needs of the organisation. Nursing graduates are decreasing in numbers; the vocation is increasingly seen as a difficult environment with insufficient financial reward and high expectations (Chitty, 2005:36). Following these arguments one would have to conclude that the use of a PRP scheme would provide the NHS with specific benefits when linked into an open environment which supported fairness and equality. However the current organisational structure of the NHS is not conducive to producing the environment needed to make this ideology successful. Instead work is perhaps needed with the basic infrastructure of the NHS organisation before additional performance plans will be able to achieve the required outcome for the operation. Recommendations for the management of PRP within the NHS There are several recommendations to be made for the management of pay within the NHS. These are as follows; Design of the scheme When PRP schemes are adopted, the design of them is crucial to their success and application (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009:134). Not only is it necessary to consider what will work for the majority of the workforce, but it is also vital to link the work of the individual into the wider team dynamic (OECD, 2005:86). As such when incentive schemes are applied, the link between teamwork and the individual is necessary in order to ensure a performance measure that involves the wider strategic picture of the organisation (OECD, 2005:86). In the case of the NHS this would be rectified through adapting some of the schemes considered elitist and improving some of the base working conditions which affect a wider degree of the working population. One would assume this will improve morale and create a workforce that wants to achieve targets and attain performance rewards. Communication When introducing performance related ideology the implementation has to be anticipated and managed openly (OECD, 2005:86). When relationships break down internally the need for consolidated teamwork becomes harder, this affects all forms of performance (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009:134). Within the NHS business model this argument is applied especially when managing trade union relationships (OECD, 2005:86), especially because this sector is driven by collective bargaining Furthermore this is particularly relevant because the core competencies of the roles have to be the same within the medical profession. The hierarchy has to be clearly defined by actual role competencies which enable staggered payments. Therefore performance based payment becomes harder to manage because each level should work at the same rate. Moreover this suggests the link between performance based pay and goal setting is vital in ensuring that employees are enabled to achieve and maintain their goals within fair and attainable means (OCED, 2005:87). Measurable Objectives Within the NHS organisational model one would assume targets for performance will centre on measureable statistics such as treatment times, waiting list turnover, number of patients seen and treated, level of discharged patients. These provide clear and measureable targets for people to meet and the measure is quantitative therefore enabling a degree of concise clarity to the measure. However research shows that providing clear statistical measures within the NHS model results in internalised pressure which manifests through the lower ranks (Kurtzman et al, 2011). Therefore one would argue this supports the need to correct the basic infrastructure within the organisations, prior to implementing reward schemes for employees. Management of Objectives When applied, the goals provided must be clearly managed by team leaders within the confines of the department or ward. This means the head medical staff responsible for these staff members have to take on a level of responsibility for managing their team as well as coping with their medical expectations. One might argue this is especially difficult within the NHS model and compounds the issue of burden and blame as medical professionals find themselves having to become more like managers (Kurtzman et al, 2011). This is known to be a contentious argument for medical professionals who chose their roles as vocations (Kurtzman et al, 2011). Stimulate Change Research suggests that performance related incentives should be used as a way to stimulate and introduce change into organisational structures (Redman, Wilkinson, 2009:135). This can be achieved through challenging the status quo and looking at new ways to manage (OECD, 2005:89). It could therefore be supported that the introduction of performance related pay into NHS trust models is applicable. As an observer one may assume the NHS organisational model has not particularly been challenged in decades, thus this strategy enables a fresh way of adapting new methods.